The chameleon has some cell layers beneath its transparent skin. These layers are the source of the color change of a chameleon. Some of these layers have pigments, while others just reflect light to create new colors.
Several factors contribute to this color change. A prominent misconception is that a chameleon change its color to match their environment. This is not true. Light, emotional state, and temperature commonly bring about a chameleon’s change in color. The chameleon will most often change between green, gray, and brown which coincidently often matches the background colors of their habitat.
Another interesting trivia about chameleons is that they can move their eyes in two different directions at the same time.